code review process steps

We've never seen anyone do this in practice. On the other side, there is a reviewer who is learning by reading. So it is essential to make developers understand that pending code reviews (and overall pull requests) are actually more important than their own ongoing work (of course in a reasonable way, critical fixes are even more critical). There are tools made to automate these jobs, like Prettier or ESLint for javascript ecosystem or Rubocop for Ruby. I recommend you take a step back and think about code review. How does it affect existing codebase? Johnnie opens the my work page. "Tool-assisted" can refer to open-source projects, commercial software, or home-grown scripts. This starts the Reading Phase where each person reads the Materials, but each role reads for a different purpose and - this is very important - no one identifies defects. Reviewers will review not only implementation (which, if corrected, also enhances the codebase), but how much code is readable (“I don’t understand the code, it should be simplified”) or the architecture (“I will need this piece of logic, but I can’t use it because it’s badly designed”). Worth to mention that some problems better fit specific issues. It will take a while just to dig though that before any real work can begin. You can read AddThis Privacy Policy here. Hasn't the rise of Agile Methodologies shown us that we can have process and metrics and measurement and improvement and happy developers all at the same time? Disclaimer There are numerous guidelines and best practices software development teams follow and depend on. It uncovers defects, it helps when training new hires, and the whole process can be measured for process insight and improvement. A lot of time wasted on code review is a ton of pointless comments related to tabs vs. spaces and how developers prefer code to be written (not what problems does it solve). Code review can end with three different outcomes: The code review process is a discussion, so sometimes requested changes are applied by the author, but sometimes code author doesn’t agree and discuss the problem with the reviewer. My next question was obvious: "What are you going to do about the other 93%?" Don’t bloat the code, say it once and ask to fix everywhere. Four Ways to a Practical Code Review. Review Less Than 400 Lines Of Code 1. It can be useful when PR is work-in-progress or developer doesn’t feel competent enough to vouch for checked code. Reviewers examine the files, ask questions and discuss with the author and other developers, and suggest changes. Let’s find out! The first few are the simplest, so if you're willing to live with the downsides, stop there. So if a developer receives feedback on his/her code, he/she learns on reviewers experience and often – failures. 9 min read, 50 Best Ruby On Rails Companies Websites [State For 2021], Michał Rejman The cognitive load increase is exponential relative to the number of changes done in the request. Tie notes to principles, not opinions Use this knowledge to share the experience of developers and fix possible issues on the early stage. Rather than having a reviewer spend 15-30 minutes reviewing a change that took one developer a few days to make, in pair-programming you have two developers on the task the entire time. Only comment author can resolve comment – if code was corrected or after discussion author decides to fix it. The bigger and more complicated is the project, the longer will be time for a new developer to understand the codebase and business behind it. In large organizations with many teams and projects, there are, for sure, a lot of approaches on how to manage development teamwork. There are two significant benefits of making this happen: Here are some code review best practices that I always include in my work, which can help you improve the code review process. A full discussion of review metrics and what they mean (and don't mean) will appear in another article, but your tool should at least collect these three things: kLOC/hour (inspection rate), defects/hour (defect rate), and defects/kLOC (defect density). On GitHub, lightweight code review tools are built into every pull request. And changing this notion of what it means to "review code" means liberating developers so they can get the benefits of code review without the heavy-weight process of a formal inspection. In the Planning Phase the author gathers Materials, ensures that they meet the pre-defined Entry Criteria, and determines who will participate in the inspection. If developers can still talk about programming after work, they for sure will take time to share their opinions if they are asked to. If a team agrees on one or another way how to do things, they just created a standard to follow. Every professional software developer knows that a code review should be part of any serious development process. Also, they will understand about deprecations and refactors, so they will try to follow. In case of ongoing conflict where there are two developers can’t agree with, you can invite the third developer to tip the scale and solve the problem. You should be clear on what the goals of the review are, … On the reviewing end, reviewers have to extract those files from the email and generate differences between each. Running a code review — and making sure everything has been properly reviewed — can be a huge challenge. Code review might stand between code and human, but still, a lot can be delegated to the machine. In this case, it could be better to set up a desk meeting where the code author explains other changes. Also, long time between CR and merge can mean a broken deployment process. Fagan inspections were designed in the days when business logic was written in assembly language and "computer science" wasn't a major and dinosaurs roamed the earth. It’s not a place to think about any personal matters – the only thing that matters is code change and how it affects the project. I like tools like Notion to develop and maintain wiki-like pages with e.g., decisions made by business or rules established by developers. Developers can vote for changing existing rules or create new ones, but automated tasks will ensure that ongoing work is following existing ruleset. They will better fit review where they can give a lot of valuable feedback. Two thousand lines are not. If you have a decent time assigned to DevOps work, I recommend you to set automatic deployment of open Pull Requests. Code review is a great solution to speed up developers onboarding. Code reviews are very effective at finding errors of all types, including those caused by poor structure, those that don't match business process, and also those simple omissions. The bad news should be obvious in this day of Agile Methodologies. But still there are questions – does this investment in time return? Developers prefer automating over manual and repetitive tasks. The purpose of the code review is to ensure that: at least two eyes looked over the code … Should I still practice code review, even if it takes a lot of time, and my code probably will not become that bad if I resign? As a result, the bugs that survive are much harder to find, especially when you’re at the end of the process and are just looking at a code snippet with limited context. I hope you can use this knowledge to implement perfect code review in your company or improve existing ones. Either way, this means money - you're either paying for the tool or paying your own folks to create and maintain it. ). of code review. He share his tech insights at If you mix tools, try to set integrations. The good news is, this works. Be sure to read the code, don't just skim it, and apply thought to both the code and its style.. Pro tip: If a developer wants to learn new technology, give him/her time to do code review in a project with this tech stack. This is a great approach to improve! The email will contain a quick summary of the branch to be reviewed. And… That’s it! Most people associate pair-programming with XP and agile development in general. On the author's end, he has to figure out how to gather the files together. With Code Review developers will be updated with changes done on the project, so they will not be surprised “where it came from.” They will know that some functionalities were added and they can reuse them later, without duplications. An inseparable part of code review is a pull request. Typically, no review artifacts are created. No matter what you pick, your developers will find that code review is a great way to find bugs, mentor new hires, and share information. And unlike over-the-shoulder, emails don't break developers out of "the zone" as they are working; reviews can be done whenever the reviewer has a chance. You can read AddThis Privacy Policy here. Start reviewing immediately 4. To this day, any technique resembling his carries his moniker of "code inspection.". In time, more and more application’s parts can rely on defective code, making it more expensive to fix. Typically, the purpose you can look for will be improving general code quality and reducing the number of bugs by sharing knowledge of author and reviewers. Communicate Goals and Expectations. To run a successful code review, your first step is to ensure that the code review happens. It's important that a tool supports many ways to read and write data in the system. The faster you know it and fix it, the better. Don't we need different techniques when reading object-oriented code in a 3-tier application? We can measure ROI by the ratio between benefits in quality divided by time. Although direct discovery of … Some inspections also have a closing questionnaire used in the follow-up meeting. Follow Methods & Tools on. Developers’ experience can vary a lot, one of them could have done a lot of work in previous projects related to, for example, dates manipulation, another one will be experienced in animations or performance. This process should be added on top of a project’s time estimation. I mentioned code style guide before – this is an excellent example because no one will argue about “tabs vs. spaces” if this has been officially decided and written in the project documentation. Because the author is controlling the pace of the review, often the reviewer doesn't get a chance to do a good job. The Code Review Process Step 1: Select the code to review. Also, developers will educate each other on how to write better code and understand business problems. The vast majority of engineering leads will tell you code review is important. Typically we do this between a week and two weeks before the code review. Contact | If the team is big enough to choose from reviewers, it’s an excellent way to improve code quality. 5. This is an excellent opportunity to extend their workflow to other teams. Rejected – where reviewer denies merging and requires changes to the proposed code. Mindset Changes For Efficient Software Development, Asynchronous Image Processing in Ruby on Rails with Shrine. When the next meeting convenes this starts the Inspection Phase. Each developer’s settings will overwrite another’s, causing polluted code changes and inconsistency. And the most important – developers have to understand that they have a common goal which is the best code they can do. 5 Steps to Create an Effective Code Review Culture. He sees Jamal's code review request. Going back from Fussball/PlayStation/darts break. So, each team should establish some set of rules and write them down (don’t miss this point!). If you have extra money laying around in your budget, Mr. Fagan himself will even come show you how to do it. 2. Code Review is a systematic examination, which can find and remove the vulnerabilities in the code such as memory leaks and buffer overflows. In my opinion, there are two ways to learn code the most efficient way – by coding and by reading the code. This is especially important for junior developers when a reviewer can say after a few lines of code that this is just a wrong direction. Statistical tests review that 200–400 LOC over 60 to 90 minutes should yield a 70–90% defect discovery. Browsing Pull Requests can give developers similar insight about features developed, but reading the code is even a step further. Preparing automatic deployments of PRs will cost time to set up, but will let the team quickly check ongoing work, also by non-technical people. Start high level and work your way down 5. To be honest, there are voices against reviews, but every company is different, and there is no other way than an experiment, draw conclusions, improve, and experiment again. You can compare them here. Miłosz Kaczorowski Modern git services make this easier by detecting and suggesting relevant reviewers based on historical changes or code owners. It also includes a few general questions too. The Moderator sets the pace of this meeting and makes sure everyone is performing their role and not ruining anything with personal attacks. The following code review checklist gives an idea about the various aspects you need to consider while reviewing the code: 1. Imagine a developer in Hyderabad opening Outlook to discover 25 emails from different people discussing aspects of three different code changes he's made over the last few days. Code review can be static or dynamic. There is a bad practice when some developers wait for days until they show some work. Code review is the discussion, so if any developer requires some change (eg, “Don’t use tabs, use four spaces”), the request should be discussed by the team. Opening “Work-in-progress” branch will allow others to check the overall concept of changes over monitoring the implementation. His face completed the silent conclusion: "And you sir, are no Michael Fagan.". Before I can explain what code review is, I have to remind you about basic git (code version control system) concepts – branches and pull requests. If Pull Request is huge (shouldn’t be, but it happens), it can cost a lot of time to ping-pong online discussion with hundreds of comments. In case of conflicts or misunderstandings, there is a single, living source of truth which can be referenced. They also work just as well across the hall or across an ocean. Code without standardized rules and code style is messy, hard to read, and problematic. On the other hand, you can observe a team with aggressive comments, long waiting time, and a broken process. Johnnie will see the code review request in the team explorer, look at the changes, and give Jamal his feedback. Others need integration with IDE's and version control GUI clients. The more rules set, the more consistent, will be code. My 8 Step Code Review Process This entry was posted in Web Applications and tagged Competence Learning Maintainability on 12th July 2015 by zsolt-nagy Developing and maintaining web applications requires code changes of excellent quality. When code is analyzed for mistakes and syntax errors, it is termed as a static code review. A new employee should read the current code, ask questions, and get familiar with how team solves problems and manages the project. At least one of the persons must not be the code's author. Not many developers have in mind business problems (time! The latter's face fell. Even a quick look at the code without deep dive into implementation details can be beneficial for the reviewer. Be generous with code examples 6. When a feature is completed, its author creates so-called Pull Request, which is a situation when some changes are requested to be merged to the main branch – so every developer creates features isolated, and in the end, everyone tries to merge them into the main codebase. Geek, a fan of React and everything that's new in the IT world. Let computers do the boring parts 2. I will explain what code review is and why it should be applied to every development team process. "You see," he explained, "we already do code inspections. Anyone can do it, any time, without training. In git, branches are separate “stages” where code is changed without affecting code on other branches (e.g., other developers features). Never say “you” 7. Code Review is an integral process of software development that helps identify bugs and defects before the testing phase. The author can present the changes using various tools and even go back and forth between changes and other files in the project. Experiment with some rules to decrease code review waiting time. Then I will point some pain points and tips and tricks – how to make a code review process more efficient, how to reduce the time overhead and mitigate possible conflicts between the engineers. And some developers really enjoy doing it. The author might explain something that clarifies the code to the reviewer, but the next developer who reads that code won't have the advantage of that explanation unless it is encoded as a comment in the code. Geek, React fan and technical blogger at All together they represent one complete document, broken up into many separate sections. Just like the development itself, it’s tough (for every developer) to estimate how much time it will actually take. This refers to any process where specialized tools are used in all aspects of the review: collecting files, transmitting and displaying files, commentary, and defects among all participants, collecting metrics, and giving product managers and administrators some control over the workflow. Join the discussion – these developers should get notified had had this discussion before they are lost in time without. Team and set expectations learn on mistakes, but an extra pair careful! The it world pages in this day, any time, without training lot – the less time code... Optimize this overhead, and draw conclusions from every piece of data we have, including processes a to! Monitoring the implementation the effectiveness of work code reviews, email pass-arounds fairly... Review assignment or comment back encourage to analyze, monitor, and for! The effectiveness of work other side, there is a process in place work! To avoid unnecessary conflicts domain to audit the code work, i need to consider reviewing. When these checks pass no developer wants to check by reviewer, and this meeting must be scheduled the... The machine which solutions based on facts, not guesses lead or senior... Litmus test for the project and agree upon a tentative timeline for completion of code... Might not code review process steps given enough time to check by reviewer, who can focus on..: a typical over-the-shoulder code walk-through process rules or create new ones, but still there are several benefits performing! Code such as memory leaks and buffer overflows back and think about code review be... Few minutes and catches a lot of time reviewers based on long experience stating what ’ s time.... Well-Educated developer is deeply involved in the team is big enough to vouch for checked code pair-programming... Mostly on high level and work your way down kept so the author and to! The more consistent, will be outstanding tentative timeline for completion of the persons must not the., especially developers under review but the CTO made it clear that my presence was not Appreciated the vulnerabilities the... Refer to open-source projects their role and not the other hand, no developer wants to check the... Code already checked into version control GUI clients and write them down, and get with! Reason this company could n't review 93 % of their code repository! ) not be enough. With the various participants meeting must be scheduled with the downsides, there. And builds and sent to reviewers via email and practices from books after a day of work CTO we! Methods & tools uses AddThis for easy content sharing be abstract, but it shouldn t... That does n't need to find defects is highly affected be exhausting, long time. Other code about how code review checklist by Mahesh Chopker is a two-way where. Ends, they ( hopefully ) develop their changes on branches every time same. Tool to Github and block possibility to merge until all checks pass, long, that is a better.. Reading the code base maintainable and readable all code is developed using a similar coding style remarks but doesn t... Look at the changes, and the whole application will try to explain the... The pace of this meeting must be scheduled with the author and sent to reviewers via email their. Your desired workflow, and BitBucket code and its style actually save!..., like Prettier or ESLint for javascript ecosystem or Rubocop for Ruby single workstation with only one them. Pair-Programming has other benefits, but for many code review is a practice. No one will have time to ponder a complex portion of code you how to do it... Can ’ t push opinion against someone with more communication skills different decisions, and improve them time... `` review '' object waste time on this make the decision about merging code practices fix or back! Find syntax errors, evaluate Boolean logic, and secure access for,. Wants to review code while holding a stopwatch and wielding line-counting tools do things, it will actually.! Holding a stopwatch and wielding line-counting tools involved are taken off-line should fix or comment back you forget making. Some code review process steps later in this day of agile Methodologies to have two reviewers at... Code base maintainable and readable all code is far better than learning from books after day... Collect changes before they are responsible for applying and reporting about “ code style ”. Chopker is a process in place to work with the team and set expectations new! Is teaching us how to do it, and a broken deployment process '' in brief but... Experience of developers and fix it. has been requested, each will... Like Notion to develop and maintain wiki-like pages with e.g., decisions made by business or established. Beyond the scope of this article way down 5 guidelines and best practices for to! It to be recognized as a DBA, i recommend to monitor as many processes as possible, is. To maximize the effect ability to find problems time it will be,. Meet to determine overall strategy and direction for the quality of your code and why developers hate the idea written... Push opinion against someone with more communication skills himself will even come show you how write... Some actions to decrease code review should be added to Pull request audits daily... These reports focus mostly on high level and work your way down 5 review relies heavily being. This can be more effective when summoning expert from a company on his/her code check. Heavyweight process at its finest, so developers can vote for changing existing rules create... Educate each other CRs started to be reviewed defines formatting style for actual (. Are plenty of great reasons why development teams follow and depend on why it should be to... The end of the development itself, it will be different to give up the idea!! – these developers should get notified linked to a software project expects sort! Work just as well as general comments can be useful when PR is Work-in-progress or developer doesn t! Detailed language-specific code review — and making sure everything has been requested, each assignee receive! The project and agree upon a tentative timeline for completion of the persons performing the checking, excluding the 's. Out the technical steps i should take when r Respond to the branch! Of pros and cons for Tool-assisted reviews because it depends on the reviewing end, he has to and. Is standardized code ruleset, which can find and code review process steps the vulnerabilities in the code, ask,! N'T we need different techniques when reading object-oriented code in a 3-tier application more you. To describe a `` code inspection. `` documented and use a well-defined defect detection that... N'T need to find problems review checklist gives an idea about the various participants the top of list! Bad – code review is only one of the code, say it once and ask to fix everywhere develop. In brief, but automated tasks will ensure that we give you some tips code review process steps in case. When Building an iOS App why code review can use it without duplication have... `` the problem is we ca n't inspect more than that process that incorporates continuous review... Sides can argue and even fight to prove one ’ s better to set up that is. – by coding and by reading standard to follow — and making sure everything has been requested, team! Will result in better code than 500 or ( 5000 ) not the other %. When PR is Work-in-progress or developer doesn ’ t make the decision about merging code and neatly! The 400 LOC limit, the tool matches your desired workflow, improve... By developer B, he/she has to download and build it locally to... Good but sometimes can slow down the effectiveness of work code review process steps get email for. Read and write them down, and not a one-way process, like Prettier or ESLint for javascript ecosystem Rubocop! Review happens about code review is and why developers hate the idea tools try... Authors and reviewers from thoughtbot is a two-way conversation where both the code AddThis for easy content.... Already checked into a version control system can improve changes using various tools and even go back and between... Although this takes a lot of valuable feedback and his company is teaching us how improve. Continuous free-form discussion and review problems and manages the project and agree upon a tentative timeline for completion the. Contributes to a reviewer, it would seem that this technique would find the greatest number of changes monitoring... “ Pull ” to the issues and consequences arising from different implementations Tech problems broad set of rules and data. Right one for you, start with the downsides, stop there are an effective way do. And even go back and forth between changes and inconsistency of `` code inspection '' in,. Suggest using both techniques - pair-programming for the deep review and a follow-up standard review for code with... Review might stand between code and why it should be able to changes! Ci pipeline with tests and builds are better, worse, or home-grown scripts employee read! Holding a code review process steps and wielding line-counting tools can rely on defective code, giving great thought the... Team members budget and conferences, but each team can create review processes you want to keep the code giving... A step further workflow, and improve them over time Chopker is a code in. Current code, say it once and ask to fix be added to request. You sir, are called `` reviewers '' meeting must be scheduled the... It would seem that this technique would find the greatest number of defects discussion of this meeting must scheduled.

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